"Disc space on any given computer is being filled with digital media (not text). What does the "replacement" of text as a primary area of focus mean to humanities scholarship? What tools are available for searching on, annotating, extracting from, publishing, etc. these -- these are at a less-developed stage than tools for text." (Ex 1, 1c-C)

"[I am] studying wiki[s], users [are] creating vetted info. Give communities ability to tag and share knowledge. Don't ignore community aspect and social aspects." (Ex 1, 1d-B)

"Annotating texts. There can be annotations at many levels; Great examples from Talmudic tradition. Now lots of multimedia. You might have a transcription, translation of source. There are many levels of collaboration, private and collaborative; social tagging; personal annotations; A book just came out that is a study of 15th century annotations." (Ex 2, 1a-B)

"Observing subjects. Real-time is an important quality of research on performative functions (dance, speech). This is a highly human activity, however there are a host of low-level tools in use (some as simple as paper and pencil)." (Ex 2, 1a-C)

"Recording observations. Electronic capture remediates the experience, and so it changes the observance. As such, live annotation is crucial to capturing the experience. Some of this was electronic capture, and some was paper annotation. Felt that important to annotate live, as something is lost when reviewing the recordings later." (Ex 2, 1a-C)

"textbooks on-line allow professors to select and embellish/annotate/correct the published material" (Ex 2, 1b-C)

"print an abstract to read later after finding it on the web. I'm experimenting with reading on-screen (e.g., saved pdfs). But underlining and sticky-notes are a better tool for annotating ... can't do that with digital...though I would like to do that digitally. The activity here is organizing/analyzing/synthesizing/digesting information." (Ex 2, 1b-C)

"Refworks. Zotero. But neither fit my workstyle ... it's one additional step to cram into a short amount of time. I like a text file so that I can cut and paste more easily. The extra steps are what's difficult ... it breaks the flow, in breaks my trail of work." (Ex 2, 1b-C)

"I like Zotero, but it is an extra thing, if you're in the flow it knocks you out. Also there's the 20K pages of primary sources that aren't going to get into Zotero 'cuz I don't have the time." (Ex 2, 1b-C)

"textbooks on-line allow professors to select and embellish/annotate/correct the published material" (Ex 2, 1b-C)

"Annotation is typically a sort of transcription. Widespread desire among scholars to automate process of transcription. Maybe imperfect transcription automation would be valuable. Or perhaps just transcription and annotation assistance would be valuable? Amount of data in 65 years will be nothing in the future, so digitizing just that much can be immensely valuable, and is ultimately smaller scale than one might think. Is transcription into written text the only way to think about approaching these materials?" (Ex 2, 1c-B)

"how layout influences the way we read a text -- how do you mark up." (Ex 2, 1c-C)

"Different ways of digitization across archives can lead to researcher having to organize things non-electronically. Easier to photocopy, maybe make notes on the computer re: context" (Ex 2, 1c-D)

"2 issues: dialogical is your practice of annotation. How do you get physical tags into a dialogue?" (Ex 2, 1d-D)

"Metatagging is a huge thing. Issue of permissions, specifically faculty permissions. Itunes, pubs and open access. Working with a company to do this. But getting faculty to do permissions on annotations, who gets access to annotate, and permissions on access. Make sure you have schema right to begin with so everyone doesn't have to think thru." (Ex 2, 1d-D)

"Contextual information management. Annotation, or cross-reference. "Every architecture needs to allow for conflicting statements about things"." (Ex 2, 1d-H)

"I don't have the two years to mark it up in xml and find a programmer to do the dateline, etc. I'd love to take my primary materials and dump it into something that would do more for me." (Ex 3, 1c-D)

"digital post-it notes" (Ex 3, 1d-F)

"historically contingent products of scholarship that are ultimately ephemeral" (Ex 4, 1b-B)

"Engage users in folksonomic tagging, giving meaning to a scholarly object, identifying the value or significance of a scholarly object. Engage people in disambiguation or correction of non-automatable data-- might look to a member of the public like "playing a game" (Ex 4, 1b-C)

"the development of shared annotated bibliography" (Ex 4, 1d-C)

"light reading: sometimes it means knowing what you want to photocopy; highlighting; adding notes in margin; brows[ing] stacks with a call number range; [reading the] first and last paragraph; [seeing the] context in which an article appears (other articles in the journal edition); quick and fluid" (Ex 4 sharing, 1d-E)

"What's coming up in scholarship: tremendous pain points around software support for scholarship has to be around annotation" (Ex 6a, 1c-C)

"Instructional markup. We often have to comment on students' work. Some people prefer to use a pen, others would like to have some digital tools. There ought to be an easy way to do it." (Ex 6b, 1c-B)

"Scenario: Pico della Mirandola is a 15th century Italian philosopher who wrote some important texts of renaissance humanism. His writings are difficult and written in Latin, and the circle of Pico scholars is relatively small; there may be 50 or 60 Pico scholars in the world. These scholars work on various aspects of Pico's work: translations, different sorts of commentaries, philosophical analysis, for example. A group of Pico scholars at the University of Bologna and Brown University formed an online project in order to work on Pico's text collaboratively, and to create new translations and commentary. They put some of Pico's Latin texts online, and collaborated through the website and via email. There are several, successive versions of Pico editions, representing developing technology and technical skills. See A great deal of the interaction takes the form of locating and annotating a point in the text of Pico, in order to add either a translation, or a philosophical, grammatical or other annotation. Readers of the text can then read the text and view the annotations. This model is of most benefit either to scholars who are familiar with the text and want to read other's commentaries, or with scholars who are studying the text and are using the commentaries to understand it better. It is not as well suited to someone who is unfamiliar d with Renaissance humanist philosophy and cannot read Latin. Recently a new group of Mexican Pico scholars joined the project, and have begun to use the annotation system to develope a translation into Spanish, which has never been done before." (SN-0026 Pico Project, Elli Mylonas, 12/18/08)

"Participation in the collaborative translation and annotation project defined here would be determined by the directors of the project. The key practice this story attempts to illustrate is that the technology should allow project directors to invite participants and assign them roles within the project. A collaborative translation and annotation tool would allow one or more scholars to participate in the translation of a single text as well as provide access to non-scholars who may have different insights into the translation and/or provide annotations based on meditative experience (i.e. practitioners). Scholars, practitioners, instructors, students could benefit from a collaborative translation tool. Need services for creating and joining groups, asserting and validating identity and affiliations, tracking and evaluating contributions to a project and defining conditional access to a project." (SN-0027 Collaborative Translation and Annotation, Alex Chapin, 1/6/08)

"We have created the Global Performing Arts Database (, a multimedia, multilingual, Web-accessible database containing digital images, texts, video clips, sound recordings, and complex media objects related to the performing arts from around the world, plus information about related pieces, productions, performers, and creators. In addition, a team of GloPAC scholars is building JPARC, an interactive and interpretive Web-based research and teaching environment focused on the Japanese Performing Arts. One of our more pressing technology needs for both GloPAD and JPARC is in the area of text and video annotation. We want our scholars to be able to easily annotate play scripts with multi-media objects, and to annotate videos with text subtitles and notes. We currently use an ad hoc combination of tools such as the QuicktimePro video editor, HTML page editors, and Flash players to annotate, but none of this work is possible without a good bit of training in complicated software and computer set ups. We have also been hampered by the technological decay of software. Some of the procedures we developed only a year or two ago no longer work due to the changes in the commercial software on which we had to rely. (See, for example, our subtitling how-to: We need a reliable service that includes tools for timed text (for subtitling and captioning) and multi-media annotation that can be easily used by the scholars who are helping to build these resources." (SN-0020 The Global Performing Arts Database No. 2, Ann Ferguson)

"Professor Q, a professor of folklore, is collecting oral histories of local storytellers. Using a digital voice recorder, she has multiple interviews with each of her subjects. She uploads the files to the server. She has several graduate assistants transcribe the notes. These, too, are stored on the server. When the data is ready, she begins to analyze the data using the timeline tool to note the beginnings and endings of stories, the commentary that the subject provided for each story, the different phases of the subjects life, etc. Professor Q and her GAs can use the synchronization tool to coordinate the audio to the transcription. Using the annotation tools, Professor Q can add her own analysis and observations. The timelines and other products can be exported to an interactive Web page that can be sent out for peer review." (SN-0054 Variations - a Tool Set for Music Research and Pedagogy, Stacy Kowalczyk)

"Scholars apply to participate in the [EVIA digital archive] summer institute and are vetted by an editorial board. Once chosen, their 10-hour video collection is sent to us for preservation transfer and we prepare access versions for annotation purposes. Approximately 15 scholars have participated in each of the 4 summer institutes we have held. These scholars spend 2 weeks together in a computer lab facility working on their own collections. They not only have access to technical support staff, administrative staff, and a cataloger, but can consult with each other about the annotation process. We organize presentations by each of the scholars so that they can share their work with the others. After the intensive 2-week period that have the bulk of their segmentation, annotations and controlled vocabulary assignment complete and typically spend the next year finishing their collection. Once their annotations are completed, they are reviewed by our managing editor, send to our co-editors, peer reviewed, and then revised based on feedback from the various reviews. Upon completion, the collection is copyedited and published to our online Search and Browse application." (SN-0055 Video Preservation, Annotation and Publishing for the Arts and Humanities - The EVIA Digital Archive Project, Alan Burdette)

"Building capability to do annotation [in JSTOR] so you can share your comments with others" (W3, Perspectives: Content, Timothy Babbitt, Chief Information Officer, JSTOR)

"Specifically: scholarship in the humanities is a broad activity, and the problems scholars are grappling with are abstract and theoretical. Digital tools and methods are a small part of the arsenal of the humanist, and are often deployed at early stages (information gathering) or late stages (publication). Humanists don't set out to quantify something or to visualize or annotate it. They set out to understand a text in relation to the society which produced it, or to count military graves in different parts of the Roman empire as a way to understand social change and mobility. We hope to make digital tools more accessible, easier to use, easier to develop and support and to discover new uses and new tools. This is very important and useful, but we mustn't forget that the ultimate goal for the humanist is to work on the problem they've selected." (Shared Services working group, Program Document Sec 4 - Discussion Draft of 9 March 2009, Elli Mylonas, 3/16/10 comment)

"Two scholarly narrative (0026 and 0027) stress collaborative annotation. A recent ARL report (November 2008) about Current Models of Digital Scholarly Communciation stresses the importance of "annotated content" for humanists. In a very interesting draft chapter of his dissertation (, Peter Boot raises the question why there are still no good annotation tools for scholarly work and argues that the collaborative tools of the wiki world despite their many virtues do not meet the requirements of scholarly commentary. The fundamental problem is that in scholarly annotation the target of an annotation is typically defined with greater precision than in typical digital notes and that existing software is largely ignorant of citational schemes and their importance. The greatest potential advantage of digital annotation is that it can transcend the 'ad locum' limitations of print annotation and provide annotational schemes that may be 'concept-bound' as well as 'location bound'. Here is a software module that would do much for scholars in many disciplines if it were designed in a sufficiently flexible and comprehensive manner." (Tools & Content Partners working group, Analyzing Scholarly Narratives, Martin Mueller, 3/27/09)

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