Modeling/visualization

"Small sciences are pushing a lot of innovation that we can use - Archeologists, Anthropologists" (Ex 1, 1b-E)

"Hard Sciences are absent - how do we learn from their technological advancements?" (Ex 1, 1b-E)

"Maybe creating a humanities front end to some scientific tool e.g., a visualization tool to make it work for the humanities." (Ex 1, 1b-H)

"Multimedia: explosion in non-textual artifacts. Makes computing needs for A&H quite comparable with needs in the sciences, given high volume of digital artifacts." (Ex 1, 1c-C)

"humanities scholarship is images. Use of images more widespread. Copyright issues." (Ex 1, 1d-B)

"Biggest change is the multimedia, used to be text or image problem. Students using mixed media, we have to teach them how to do it, need machinery, way to share it and store it." (Ex 1, 1d-B)

"Develop tools (visualizations, software, produce a digital resource)" (Ex 2, 1a-A)

"Work with manifestation; in order to get this in my head, I need to do the whole thing myself" (Ex 2, 1a-B)

"Virtual reunification of artifacts (address cultural issues?)" (Ex 2/3 flipcharts, 1c-F)

"Google Earth has had bad press, but we've put Humboldt's travels on Google Earth. You can use it to enter the text at any point, could be useful for chronology, go to a particular point and find the relevant information. Very relevant for scholarly purposes; you can find that the dot wasn't placed precisely on the page because you can get more precise coordinates on Google Earth; improving geographic database. We've put his maps on Google Earth to see what cities he saw that no longer exist. Have to allow for controversy in Humanities; historical placing of a city can be a topic of argument. Your own program can allow for a community to comment; "I was there and took my GPS coordinates". Useful to think about geographic elements over time, documenting when things moved and why; recontextualizing. Putting back elements that have been removed over time. We need to get to a place where we can reuse those objects; this is why I'm excited about Bamboo" (Ex 2, 1d-A)

"We started with a way of creating a geographical space as a way of organizing resources. Originally, 2D archeological plans > had to move to 3D. Creating visualizations meant sending to scholars who might have different parts of puzzle. What's the routine for a goat herder? Does that make sense? Does it interfere with other things going on? Finding exemplar objects, navigating museum policies, etc. Interesting to use a single geographical space (ancient city) as a basis for collaboration > using that as a way to hang articles and knowledge on top of it" (Ex 2, 1d-A)

"People don't want to look through everything, so a visualization of structure" (Ex 3, 1c-B)

"Interactive virtual reality or digital modeling as scholarly activity? Or visualization? Perhaps common theme, but with uncommon practices and tasks. Interface is different, but the theme can be common." (Ex 3, 1c-B)

"Modeling and visualization - creative act of creating a model which will then be visualized. This happens through visualization of data, so modeling must be included. What's innovative is the fact that it's being used in the humanities, making it somewhat uncommon. Enabling technology for humanities scholar" (Ex 3, 1c-B)

"Take advantage of new kinds of structure: GIS, for example. Invented for physics, but no reason you can't use it for humanities. Visualizations. Frontiers" (Ex 4, 1c-A)

"Recreating/modeling environments? This has a lot to do with pedagogy, too. Cuts across disciplines" (Ex 4, 1d-E)

"Relatedly, what scholars have to do to transform between models. Enriching by looking at what else is out there. People are creating GIS in my field for their archeological project. As we get more projects, we get patchwork quilts of databases that don't talk to each other" (Ex 4, 1d-E)

"Walking through a building is different than experiencing the model of that. Interactive visualization - where the subject maintains an impact on what is being shown. Interactive vs. pre-determined. Passive vs. participatory experience. How then does subjectivity determine the experience of it? Things can be re-represented in different modalities - both temporal and not. Potentially revealing wave in which time complicates the content and context. Or in part determines it. Final product of research? Opens different understandings as researchers take different perspectives upon this. Necessarily interdisciplinary - Revisualizing may not be something that would interest the humanities, but then the final product becomes a source for humanities. As the model passes through different stages of creation, it engages different disciplines. Reconstructing fragments. Virtual unification of things that are physically disparate. Multi-spectral imaging - 3D imaging that one might walk through, slices through archaeological artifacts. Exploring inside of artifacts instead of simply surface. Can be used in literary contexts as well. Non-linear narratives like Joyce's Ulysses (Wandering Rocks) at points can be visualized. May open up understanding of a literary object to see the action of piece of literature represented virtually. Model may be used to show an insight, or an experience. Is this the sole binary? The sole possibility?" (Ex 5, 1c-B)

"Major point of modeling is to make the invisible visible. Virtual sculpture - Making the non-existent exist. Sonification - Making the unseen perceptible. Ultimately results in sharing "the thing." Perception of a building is not the same than if one was to just build it - modeling provides a new experience/perception" (Ex 5, 1c-B)

"Modeling and visualization - connecting to performance. Expectation that people would be more interested in this type of visualization resulting in different types of digital artifacts. Only a very tiny portion of buildings that get designed actually get built, so allowing people access to those that haven't been built." (Ex 5, 1c-B)

"How would I find the ability to do these things as a researcher? YouTube, commercial spaces. Some require specialized software. 3D visualization. Development of cheaper alternatives to do the same types of spectrographic visualizations. "It's not there yet. It's not as normal as television or taking a book off a shelf."" (Ex 5, 1c-B)

"relationship between art & research -- art lets you see the world in different ways --> so does research. yet the practices that define art occupy this heavily uncommon space and the practices that define research seem to occupy heavily common space. Why? artists can say they don't care about the facts" (Ex 5, 1c-C)

"Need to be aware of multi-media. Lots of people come in with skills in m-m. We found humanities grads were very proficient in using various forms of m-m. Younger people have less tolerance of the inertia in the existing systems. We're seeing it too. They want to immediately come in & make changes." (Ex 6a, 1a-D)

"Map places and relationships. Map places and relationships in a novel or other text. Graphic ways of representing social and romatic relations in literature. Digitally identify narration type in a text. Machine learning for identifying types of narration (e.g., is this a descriptive sentence, narrative sentence). Visualization of social networks. In a text or other corpus. Map relationships. Contextualize objects of study. Across disciplines. Contextualization: not just the text, but the social context, place in which it was created: a historical turn following recent linguistic focus" (Ex 6a, 1a-E)

"How much does digital distraction figure into pedagogical contexts? if there's too much stimulus, students who come to University without critical thinking skills can end up losing ground because of digital technologies ... distraction is a barrier to developing critical thinking skills ..." (Ex 6a, 1b-B)

"Iconic use. Visualizations of what's in one's head. New ways of thinking and knowing that are visual." (Ex 6a, 1b-C)

"Networking not used so much for research - for their own purposes. More in the sense of when students are assigned to use these tools. Visualization techniques are up and coming practices. To compare content that otherwise had to be described. Also used for ethnography, creating websites that map out terrains." (Ex 6a, 1b-C)

"compare content that otherwise had to be described" (Ex 6a, 1b-C)

"Intensely networked. When to introduce a high-end tool to students. Do these tools interfere with the process of learning." (Ex 6a, 1b-E)

"Seeing a lot of GIS data and visualization." (Ex 6b, 1a-G)

"More complex presentation tools with the ability to use 3D objects with Text and dead-easy to use." (Ex 6b, 1b-C)

"Better analysis more elegant than a spreadsheet. Technology resources that will help faculty create and present. Embedding media in courses makes them more popular. " (Ex 6b, 1b-C)

"WHAT: The compilation of a series of digital morphs illustrating the problem of the ontology of a text, its relation with precedent and subsequent texts, and the blurring of the boundaries of the "work". The compilation/database is primarily of visual materials (from paintings to video games to cartoons to architecture), but also incorporates audio files. The morphing project has been the subject of several lectures at "digital resources" conferences, is used in my textual/critical courses, and has been the subject of a number of published (and to be published essays). An example of a mid-point in a low-resolution morph constructed from two different video games is attached.
HOW: The following is a caption to an illustration from the compilation; it sets out the procedures in a general way. Complex Morph storyboard, showing selection of key points and keylines in a two-sequence morph on three states. Note that once a keypoint has been selected in the opening frame of each level of a storyboard, the morphist must then make a subjective decision on what will be the appropriate analogous keypoint on the closing frame of that level (i.e. the initial digital pairing of the two keypoints is based purely on the positions of individual pixels in the graphic frame, and it is the morphist who must then drag the corresponding keypoint to the pixel that best represents the formal or ontological equivalence in the morph narrative being constructed). Other technical and critical decisions made by the morphist that will have direct effects on every frame of the total morph movie include the setting of time codes, the image resolution (in dpi), the image resizing, the chroma-keying (adjustment of colour wheel), the zoom ratio, the setting of interpolation points (transformation-control points along each keyline), degrees of rotation, the selection of crossfade protocols, the compression ratio, the relation between quality of animation-image and animation motion (in inverse proportion), the frames per second (8 is standard low-end for computer animations, 30 for NTSC US and 25 European video), and the pixel depth (i.e. the number of colours in the transition image), which will depend on the technical capacities of the playback device (8-bit, 24-bit). All of this demonstrates that, while the resulting morph may look like "free play" or "feminist fluidity", it is in fact the construct of a very complex series of technical and critical decisions made by the morphist.
HELPS: Graphics and audio editing programs that can accomplish the steps laid out above.
NEED: As above, with more sophisticated morphing software and display." (SN-0016 Support for Morphing of Audio-visual Assets, David Greetham)

"To help him navigate within the piece, he creates form diagrams for each of its four movements by dividing a timeline of each movement into sections and grouping the sections into higher-level structures. He then uses the timeline to move around within the piece, comparing the performances and storing his notes as text annotations attached to individual time spans. To find a particular section he's interested in, he might play a sequence of notes on a musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) keyboard attached to his computer, prompting the system to locate the sequence in the score. When he finishes, he exports the timelines as an interactive Web page and email the page to his collaborator for comment." (SN-0054 Variations - a Tool Set for Music Research and Pedagogy, Stacy Kowalczyk)

""Mapping" ultimately became a hinge, if you will, between Sayers's and Wilson's approaches to technology. They found that they both used the term often, but almost always with different valences. Unpacking those valences and drawing affiliations across them thus functioned as means to better understand each other's disciplines, research, archives, and lexica. And from their ongoing conversations, Sayers and Wilson are also learning that it is not their shared technical skills or critical practices that are necessarily bridging their approaches and fields of study. Rather, that bridge is the continuing desire to seek novel forms of technoliteracy at the UW and elsewhere: to encourage creative thinking with and through technology, to animate existing histories and archives in new directions, to promote participatory learning climates, and (most importantly) to frame technology as neither determinant nor neutral." (SN-0042 Mapping the Digital Humanities, Jentery Sayers, 12/24/08)

"Q: Ideas, possibilities are dazzling- would like to have something concrete to take away. Project Bamboo, if it came to fruition, would be able to help w/ a project to visualize middle ages; I'm interested in that, but what would PB do to help? I can line up the medievalists, but my university doesn't have financial resources to put into this. A: The point I was trying to make wasn't that Bamboo would do this, but this is an initiative that D Hum centers want to put forward as one of maybe several different things that emerged from meeting - possibility for multi-generational/institutional teams to be formed; want to have those teams cross subject area with digital methodology. Visualization as a technique was a suggestion of what teams might want to do." (W3, Perspectives: Scholarly Practice, Q&A)

"This website attempts to document all the places in America that Emma Goldman gave talks, and all the topics she spoke on, between 1910 and 1916. Goldman's activities are represented as a network of events, each of which can be associated with documents related to those events. Part of the Bringing Lives to Light: Biography in Context project sponsored by the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS). The website shows how geographic and temporal referencing of biographical events can help scholars in exploring and presenting their work. The project is working with Barry Pateman, one of the editors of the Emma Goldman papers.
Description of Technologies. We began with Barry's Word Perfect file containing the Emma chronology. We then converted this to the OpenDocument XML format] using Open Office. Because Barry used consistent styling (bold, italics, etc.) and formatting for things like city names and dates in his chronology, we could easily parse this XML and produce an Atom XML document with an entry for each event in the chronology. Then
we georeferenced this Atom document using Geonames. Finally, we transformed this Atom file into RDF/XML using classes and properties from the Event ontology. We also transformed it into KML for viewing in Google Earth. The prototype consists of a single XHTML file with the RDF triples encoded as RDFa and embedded in HTML attributes. Using the open source Yahoo User Interface Javascript libraries, Google Maps Javascript libraries, and our own Javascript code, we created the interactive browsing and searching functionality which searches within the HTML document for matching RDF triples upon selection of a place and/or date range." (Tools & Content Partners working group, Life Path Demonstrator Description, 1/13/09)

"Visualization systems allow readers to track, for example, where and how often Plato's Republic has been discussed, what passages have been most examined, and what sorts of things people have said about Plato, whether in Berlin or the Iranian university city of Qom." (SN-0033 ePhilology and Memographies, Greg Crane)

"Sayers and Wilson are now in the process of developing the digital humanities curriculum, under the mentorship of Thurtle and Elwood, and have already presented their work on the UW campus, as part of the Information School's Research Conversation Series. What they are learning is that the visualization and animation of information in humanities contexts is not just a trend in fields such as the digital humanities; it's indicative of a mode of thought, one that is especially common amongst undergraduates. Through an emphasis on "mapping" in the geographical and textual senses, they are stressing how a curriculum that includes pattern analysis, information aggregation, "distant reading," and data structuring and preservation might simultaneously appeal to emerging learning styles and research practices and help produce new ways of imagining the work of humanistic inquiry. These "new ways" almost undboutedly include re-thinking writing and composition to include new media, collaboration, and networked narratives, all of which are encapsulated in Sayers's and Wilson's conceptualization of mapping." (SN-0042, Mapping the Digital Humanities, Jentery Sayers, Matthew W. Wilson)

"Specifically: scholarship in the humanities is a broad activity, and the problems scholars are grappling with are abstract and theoretical. Digital tools and methods are a small part of the arsenal of the humanist, and are often deployed at early stages (information gathering) or late stages (publication). Humanists don't set out to quantify something or to visualize or annotate it. They set out to understand a text in relation to the society which produced it, or to count military graves in different parts of the Roman empire as a way to understand social change and mobility. We hope to make digital tools more accessible, easier to use, easier to develop and support and to discover new uses and new tools. This is very important and useful, but we mustn't forget that the ultimate goal for the humanist is to work on the problem they've selected." (Shared Services working group, Program Document Sec 4 - Discussion Draft of 9 March 2009, Elli Mylonas, 3/16/10 comment)

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